CBD FOR CANCER
Cervical cancer affects over 500,000 females of Sub-Saharan Africa each year, and over half of these women die of this disease. This makes it the most lethal cancer amongst black women. An amazing study published in 2016 showed that CBD prevented the growth of cervical cancer cells, and it also induced cervical cancer cell death. (SOURCE).
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. A 2017 study demonstrated that radiation-induced death in GBM could be enhanced by CBD-mediated signaling in concert with it marginal effects for neural stem/progenitor cells and astrocytes. (SOURCE).
Cannabinoids are already administered to advanced stage breast cancer patients, but a 2019 study showed that they might be effective at earlier stages to decelerate tumor progression. The study provided evidence that that cannabinoids may decelerate tumor progression in breast cancer patients. It found that cannabinoids block cell cycle progression and cell growth. They also were found to reduce angiogenesis and tumor metastasis in animal breast cancer models. (SOURCE).
In adults with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, oral cannabinoids have shown to be an effective antiemetic. (SOURCE).
A 2013 review focused on the efficacy of CBD in the modulation of different steps of tumourigenesis in several types of cancer. It highlighted the importance of exploring CBD as alternative therapeutic agents. (SOURCE).
Research shows CBD exhibits pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions in different types of tumours and may also exert anit-migratory, anti-invasive, anti-metastitic and perhaps anti-angiogenic properties. This evidence suggests that CBD is a potent inhibitor of both cancer growth and spread. Based on its safety record and considering CBD is already being used in patients with multiple sclerosis, research suggests that CBD might be worth of clinical consideration for cancer therapy. (SOURCE).
CBD FOR BREAST CANCER
A 2006 study demonstrated for the first time that CBD potently and selectively inhibited the growth of different breast tumour cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MD-231), with an IC50of about 6 µm, and exhibited significantly lower potency in non-cancer cells. It found that CBD and CBD-rich extrcts (containing ~70% CBD together with other cannabinoids) also inhibited the growth of xenografts cells and reduced infiltration of lung metastases derived from injection of breast carcinoma cells. The ability of CBD to significantly decrease Id-1 expression in breast cancer cells was associated with its efficacy in reducing tumour aggressiveness. (SOURCE).
In 2010, the same research group demonstrated that CBD was effective in reducing the primary tumour mass and the size and number of metastatic foci in vivo. (SOURCE)
An excellent paper from 2011 discussed the cellular mechanism through which CBD induces cell death in breast cancer. The researchers showed that CBD induced a concentration-dependent cell death of both oestrogen receptor-positive and oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells with a mechanism independent of CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptor activation. They also found that CBD reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered the translocation of the Beclin2 interacting protein (Bid) to the mitochondria and the release of cytochrome C to the cytosol, and ultimately the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. (SOURCE).
Research and studies strengthen the idea that CBD can be considered as an alternative agent for breast cancer therapy.
The figure below shows a schematic representation of the signaling pathways associated with the effect of CBD in breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion (FIGURE).
CBD FOR GLIOMA
CBD possess anti-tumoural properties in gliomas, which are tumours of glial origin characterized by a high morphological and genetic heterogeneity and considered one of the most devastating neoplasms. CBD also shows high proliferative rate, aggressive invasiveness and insensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy.
A paper demonstrated a serum-dependent effect of CBD upon C6 murine glioma cell proliferation. (SOURCE).
A 2004 study reported that CBD was effective in inhibiting U87-MG and U373 human glioma cell proliferation in vitro through the induction of apoptosis and found that CBD did not affect viability of non-transformed primary glial cells. More importantly, the study demonstrated for the first time that the anti-tumour effect of CBD involved the induction of oxidative stress, through increased early production of ROS, depletion of intracellular glutathione and increased GHS-associated enzymatic activity. (SOURCE).
CBD FOR LEUKAEMIA/LYMPHOMA
The first evidence of possible exploitation of CBD in the treatment of lymphoblastic diseases was reported in a 2003 study. (SOURCE). It demonstrated that CBD treatment induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in human acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cell line, whereas it had no effect on human monocytes from normal individuals.
A 2006 study provided evidence that CBD may be a novel and highly selective treatment for leukemia. (SOURCE). Moreover, previous evidence indicated that human leukaemias and lymphomas expressed significantly higher levels of CB2 receptors compared with other tumour cell lines, suggesting that tumours of immune origin may be highly sensitive to the CB2-mediated effects of CBD. (SOURCE).
CBD FOR LUNG CANCER
A series of targets and new therapeutic strategies are being investigated for the treatment of lung cancer.
A study from 2010 investigated the effects of CBD on the invasive properties of A549 cells, which are a line of human lung carcinoma cells expressing CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptors. This study found a CBD-driven impaired invasion of A549 cells that was reversed by CB1 and CB2 receptors as well as TRPV1 antagonists. This study conclude that CBD provided a novel mechanism of anti-invasive action, which implies potential use as a therapeutic option for the treatment of highly invasive cancers. (SOURCE).
CBD FOR ENDOCRINE TUMOURS
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy.
A study from 2006 investigated the antitumor activities of CBD, CBG, CBC, CBDA and THCA. It also assessed whether there is any advantage in using Cannabis extracts over pure cannabinoids. Results clearly indicated that CBD was the most potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth of the five natural cannabinoids tested. CBD had significantly lower potency non-cancer cells. The study showed that CBD-rich extract was equipotent to pure CBD. Both inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors. The study supported the further testing of CBD for the potential treatment of cancer. (SOURCE).
CBD FOR COLON CANCER
Colon cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. A 2012 paper investigated the possible chemopreventive effect of CBD in the model of colon cancer induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in mice. The report cocluded that CBD exerts chemopreventive effect in vivo and reduces cell proliferation through multiple mechanisms. (SOURCE).
CBD for ANGIOGENESIS
Angiogenesis consists of the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones and represents another promising therapeutic target for cancer therapy. CBD has been demonstrated to act as anti-angiogenic factors by disposing tumour cells to decrease the production of pro-angiogenic factors and/or by direct modulation of endothelial cells. (SOURCE).
CBD effectively inhibits the growth of different types of tumours in vitro and in vivo down-regulates some pro-angiogenic signals produced by glioma cells. A 2012 study evaluated the ability of CBD to modulate tumour angiogenesis. The study concluded that CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells supports the hypothesis that CBD has potential as an effective agent in cancer therapy. (SOURCE).